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Antigonus II Mattathias (Matityahu in Hebrew) was the last Hasmonean king of Judea. Between 40 B.C. and 37 B.C., Antigonus led a three year struggle for Jewish independence from Rome which was kindled to a great extent by Rome’s excessive taxation of the Jewish people which had developed a deep hatred for Rome by the Jews in Judea. Antigonus was defeated by Rome in about 37 B.C. and subsequently executed thereby ending Hasmonean rule in Judea.

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