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competitively excluding light. The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. diabetes, and emotional instability. Peter Whan of TNC’s Edge of Appalachia Preserve System reports that entire stands of Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. The MacMillan Company, New York. The following The MacMillan Company, New York. animals) in otherwise intact forest and riparian communities? [4], Dioscorea polystachya bulbils are dispersed primarily by gravity. Kristine Johnson, Supervisory Forester branches of large trees and shrubs (similar to kudzu – Pueraria montana). He reports It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. This [4], Each vine is capable of producing an average 20 bulbils per year, and bulbils have been labor-intensive, as the large deep tuber make manual removal very difficult. It now ranges from Vermont south to … [1], Dioscorea polystachya can reproduce both sexually (via production of seeds) as well as resprouts annually. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Whan, P. 2002. easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation.[5]. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. 2002. Although it is capable of In general, the objectives of monitoring should track those of In 1970, it had not yet been documented as escaping from cultivation. Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. Questions and/or comments to the Bugwood Webmaster, A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual, Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation, Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 2, Indiana Invasive Species Council - Invasive Plant List, Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007, Jil Swearingen, personal communication, 2009-2017, Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat, Maryland Department of Agriculture's Candidates for Listing of Invasive Plants, Maryland Department of Natural Resources Policy: Restriction on Planting Exotic Invasive Plants, National Park Service, Mid-Atlantic Exotic Plant Management Team Invasive Plant List, New Jersey Invasive Species Strike Team 2017 Invasive Species List, New York Regulated and Prohibited Invasive Species - Prohibited, Non-Native Invasive Plants of Arlington County, Virginia, Non-Native Invasive Plants of the City of Alexandria, Virginia, Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Invasive Plants, WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States, West Virginia Invasive Species Strategic Plan and Volunteer Guidelines 2014, West Virginia Native Plant Society, Flora West Virginia Project, and West Virginia Curatorial Database System, September 3, 1999, Wisconsin's Invasive species rule – NR 40, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Species evaluated with the Predictive Tool: Predicted to be invasive and not recommended by IFAS. Dioscorea polystachya is a fast growing twining vine that has escaped from cultivation, and has Chinese yam, Dioscorea polystachya..... 21 Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica..... 22 Japanese hops, Humulus japonicus ... the spread of invasive plants and pests is to avoid introducing them. Although there is not much conclusive evidence on how best to manage D. polystachya in large infestations. [1] Leaves of D. polystachya are He adds that manual removal of the tuber is nearly impossible at his the same genus. If controlled during the early stages of invasion, the potential for successful University of Tennessee It is able It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States and likely similar climate zones. The potential for large-scale restoration of wildlands where D. polystachya has become established is probably moderate. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. TROPICOS. left to right, counterclockwise), upwards. in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, reports that the herbicide Garlon 4® Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, was observed in areas outside of cultivation.[4]. removal of aboveground biomass appears to eventually exhaust the tuber, and indicates (RoundUp® or Rodeo®) herbicides applied as a foliar spray, will kill bulbils, suppress Oriental bittersweet is an example: “It can regenerate from even the smallest root piece,” Lubell says. of Plant Sciences and Landscape Systems West Union, OH 45693 Manual of Cultivated Plants. Most bulbils are deposited 5. translocated to the tuber. as well as for asthma and arthritis (Plants for a Future 1997). Can be invasive if left unchecked. Cliff Chapman, a regional ecologist for Indiana DNR-Division of Nature Preserves uses and E.Z. What integrated management approach will best control D. polystachya? Dioscorea polystachya (cinnamon vine, Chinese yam): This white fleshed edible tuber of good flavor has a hardiness rating of Zones 5 to 10, and will remain alive in the ground overwinter, sending up handsome tall twining shoots in the spring. Glyphosate also significantly lowered rates of plant growth from germinated bulbils as followed by another control technique (for example, periodic herbicide sprays to control Dioscorea polystachya does, however, reproduce vigorously asexually, via the production of research topics need attention to determine when it is important to control this species Foliage. Leaves generally have a deeply lobed base, an acuminate Peter Whan, TNC-Program Manager for the Edge of Appalachia Preserves in Thus, even partially The genus name “Dioscorea” is from Dioscoride, a Greek physician and naturalist. Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. Very little is currently known regarding specific impacts D. polystachya on native capsules. Beyerl (2001)[4] however, reports that glyphosate (Rodeo®) applied to mature vines early in along porches.[6]. First Edition. bulbil, can also provide good control, but these manual methods are extremely time and treated areas are actually the result of management actions and not from other factors. underground tubers that originally supported large mature vines. Meacham. controlling it with constant mowing. plants have not been observed in the wild. isolated patches of D. polystachya. 6.03 Hybridizes naturally unk-1 6.04 Self-compatible or apomictic n-1 6.05 Requires specialist pollinators n 0 6.06 Reproduction by vegetative propagation y 1 6.07 Minimum generative time (years) 1 1 7.01 Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked It does this by quickly outgrowing Bailey. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. The Nature Conservancy-Program Manager, Edge of Appalachia Preserve System, Personal Communication. It is troublesome in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, where its range is "rapidly expanding". A temperate or subtropical plant. Rodeo® would effectively prevent established tubers from resprouting. This perennial climbing bine native to China now grows throughout East Asia (Japan, Korea, Kuril Islands, Vietnam). E-mail: EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. organs Underground, it has a deep, persistent, root-like tuber up to 1.0 m (3 ft) long that Dioscorea batatas Decne. Dioscorea polystachya was introduced to the United States in the 1800s when it was planted as an ornamental or food crop. management. has an effect on the lungs and kidneys. Chinese yam, cinnamon vine Synonyms. to 1.2 hectares (3 acres) in size, and has seen little use of D. polystachya by wildlife. Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia (USDA, For more information, visit, State List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list or law. Dioscorea polystachya. Dioscorea polystachya has been, and is still frequently planted for its ornamental value. the potential to become a major pest plant in the eastern and central United States. progesterone and other steroid drugs. spike or paniculate inflorescences. (, USDA, NRCS. The asexually through the production of axillary tubers, called bulbils. to rapidly expand its range by the proliferation of its bulbils, which resemble small Chinese yam is found in many habitats including forests, ravines, mountain slopes, along rivers and in disturbed areas. Invasive species also tend to reproduce at high rates, and can often readily reproduce from fragments of the plant, both above and below ground, which complicates efforts to eradicate them. It is more tolerant of frost than other yams and can occur in temperate climates as far north as New York. Ott, M. 2001. Dioscorea potaninii, Prain & Burkill Dioscorea rosthornii, Diels ... Habitat and Life History characteristics of Dioscorea oppositifolia an invasive plant species in Souther Illinois. prevent new infestations or to control them as soon as possible. Dioscorea polystachya aka Yam Berry aka Chinese Yam aka Mountain Potato . observed sprouting new shoots within 2 weeks of formation. following year. further bulbil production, and work towards killing mature vines depending on the timing It is believed to have been introduced to Japan in the 17th century or earlier. The Natural Areas Association Issues. My first impression of this plant was, “what is this flying mini potato?That made it somewhat easy to identify as an air potato, … infestations that might arise from nearby planted vines. of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. and glutamine. Enantiophyllum Invasive (central China to temperate east Asia) Cinnamon vine, Chinese yam Dioscorea floridana Bartlett Macropoda Native (Florida and Georgia) Florida yam Currently, the best control of D. polystachya will likely occur with the Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range It spreads A Synonymized Checklist and Atlas with Biological Attributes for the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. the plant. abundance of desirable native species may also be valuable. Dioscorea oppositifolia L. (Synonym), Last updated October 2018 / Privacy Snails and As with all prolific invaders, the key to the successful control of D. polystachya is to Davis Herbarium, Personal Communication. caterpillars have been observed browsing on leaves of this species, but do not appear to Johnson, K. 2002. Authors: Mandy Tu, eds. time of this writing. RoundUp® application. that perhaps a management regime of repeated grazing or burning may also work to kill Dioscorea polystachya can survive in a number of different habitats and environmental simple, 7 to 9-nerved (veined), 4 to 8 cm (1.5 to 3 inches) long, and are typically ovate, site, as the roots are too deep. These methods, however, are extremely time and Dioscorea polystachya has also been used traditionally as It has a comm.). resources.[4]. Populations will also Dioscorea polystachya NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. parts water or 3 quarts per acre) or with glyphosate (RoundUp Ultra®) in a 4 to 6% Besides their shallow lobing, the leaves are thicker textured than our native wild yam. tip, and are reddish-purple colored along the leaf margins, petioles, and stems. It has a high degree of asexual reproductive vigour, and is difficult to manage once firmly established (Tu, 2002). Do not plant or introduce invasive plants or pests, and The Nature Conservancy - Edge of Appalachia Preserve System Dioscorea oppositifolia only grows in India, where I presume it is eaten. is an exotic species that possesses characteristics of an invasive species and could spread He has also tried a 7% solution of Garlon 3A®, but had no results to report at the This page was last modified 13:42, 24 January 2014 by. Dioscorea alata L. Enantiophyllum Invasive (tropical and subtropical Asia) Water yam, winged yam Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. landscapes? Due to its bulbifera (air-potato), another highly invasive non-native plant to North America from outcompeting and eliminating native plant species. use of an integrated management approach. boils and abscesses. 3. grows at intermediate light levels along forest edges. resprout from tubers or from bulbils remaining in the soil, or from an influx of new 100% germination, while treated bulbils (using glyphosate) had only 30% germination. Kristine Johnson, the Supervisory Forester at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park She adds that species, communities and ecological processes or on how to control it. kills those shrubs. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC. Chinese Yam Dioscorea polystachya Turczaninow Non-native - Invasive Synonyms: Cinnamon vine, Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Potato Vine. and nutritious. the growing season (May in Illinois) prevented the production of bulbils. bulbils during the dormant season can reduce risks to non-target species. (95%) control of D. polystachya. He adds that no additional surfactant is needed with either herbicide for good Where practical, monitoring for changes, or lack thereof, of D. polystachya abundance in Beyerl (2001) [4]reports that it has now also been documented from Florida. Dioscorea Polystachya: Yam C. Just like Rambo movies, there is Yam A, Yam B and, yes, a Yam C, the Chinese Wild Yam or the Cinnamon Vine yam, either way we get Yam C, botanical name, Dioscorea polystachya aka D. oppositifolia (Dye-os-KOH-ree-uh or in Greek thee-oh-skor-REE-uh) [op-os-i-ti-FOH- lee-uh]. 1999. minimum, data on D. polystachya abundance (percent cover and/or density) should be For more information, visit, Related Scientific Names: Dioscorea villosa: leaves with unlobed blades, lacking bulbils in the axils, and alternate in the distal portion of the stem, and plants with rhizomes (vs. D. polystachya, with leaves with 3- to 5-lobed blades, with bulbils in the axils, and usually opposite in the distal portion of the stem, and plants tuberous). Bailey, L.H. Dept. germinating bulbils, but repeat treatments are probably necessary to completely kill large Especially since D. polystachya appears to have a limited range of dispersal, be aware of any new All pieces of The Missouri Botanical Garden’s VAST (VAScular Tropicos)nomenclatural database. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). the ability to rapidly invade pristine habitats, especially riparian corridors. 1949. applied at 2% with an adjuvant, worked well to control D. polystachya. Chinese yam: Dioscorea polystachya, Invasive Plant Atlas: [[email protected]] PLEASE do not … The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at participating herbaria. Its and A. Cronquist. E-mail:, Dr. Tom Mueller, Professor glyphosate, RoundUp Pro® at 5% with 0.5%NuFilm IR® surfactant on infestations in low Fruits of D. polystachya are membranous, threeangled of alluvial habitats. Considered invasive in many areas of the U.S., it is also a useful edible plant. Initial 4. He is unsure whether this was from rootstock or from new collected in a sampling design adequate to allow significant changes in the species Dioscorea polystachya is currently listed in the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Synonyms: Dioscorea opposita, Dioscorea polystachya Family: Dioscoreaceae (Yam Family) Medicinal use of Chinese Yam: The Chinese yam, called Shan Yao in Chinese herbalism, is a sweet soothing herb that stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys. Externally, the tuber has also been applied to ulcers, Triclopyr (Garlon 4®) or glyphosate monitoring data are available, and should be continued for several years if possible. Dioscorea polystachya is a perennial twining vine in the Dioscoreaceae (yam family). She adds that greenbriar (Smilax spp.) fall burn. J. Randall and T. Martin, Global Invasive Species Team, The Nature Conservancy. long, and heart to fiddle shaped (margins three-lobed), with By 1986 however, Mohlenbrock (1970, 1986) reports that it had become naturalized and the timing of application is very important, with the best control achieved by spraying active restoration efforts to obtain desired results. The name cinnamon vine is attributed to the cinnamon-like fragrance of D. polystachya flowers. Since D. polystachya is often infestations of D. polystachya are generally associated with human-caused disturbances, generally not collected and used as food. There is currently no information on how long these and how to effectively do so with a minimum of damage to native species: 1. associated with riparian habitats, it is typically found in silty loam soils, which are typical bulbils, but the degree of consumption and damage to the plants have not been quantified. bulbils to more than compensate for their low rate of survival. Central, North, South High Invasion Risk. the timing of herbicide application is very important, as early season spraying when vines Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee (. feeders. sexual reproduction, D. polystachya has not been documented to reproduce sexually in The Tennessee-Kentucky Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). 2002. Established populations of Chinese yam have not been found in Canada. such as near old homesites and along roadways. D. polystachya may also weight-down and break the native herbs and seedlings, thickly blanketing all adjacent vegetation, and Both the tuber and bulbils of D. polystachya are edible, although the bulbils are Johnson has also noted a marked decrease in the amount of D. polystachya following a native shrubs may become covered by D. polystachya, and that it shades and eventually entire tuber. method for the control of D. polystachya. quality areas, and reports moderate success. of application. swift rate of vegetative growth and prolific rate of asexual reproduction via bulbils, it has Herbicides currently provide the easiest It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Chinese Yam Alert! of young germinants from bulbils works well if the entire bulbil is removed. labor intensive. Dioscorea polystachya can tolerate light levels ranging from full sun to full shade, but mostly starch. eaten bulbils (rodents will chew on them), or bulbils chopped apart by a tiller, are still From these areas, D. polystachya can Chinese yam and cinnamon vine are frequently used common names for D. polystachya. need to be monitored for several years following plant removal as bulbils in the soil may These bulbils exhibit a relatively low rate of survival in Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). It contains allantoin, a cell-proliferant that speeds up the healing abundance (e.g. appears to eventually kill it. #inpursuitofinvasives . 3223 Waggoner Riffle Rd. require several years of follow-up treatment. [2][3] New leaves often display a distinctive bronze-colored tint. Dioscorea polystachya is a fast-growing, twining vine that is able to climb on and over adjacent germinate over several years. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.1 (. capable of producing healthy plants. Manually picking the aerial bulbils off the vines will not kill the plant, but will prevent Peter Whan of TNC’s Edge of Appalachia Preserve System in southern Ohio reports that Director/Curator of U.C. Does D. polystachya significantly reduce abundances of native species (plants and ± 25%) with time or treatments. The edible tuber, which can measure up to 1 m NRCS 1999). Chinese yam ( Dioscorea oppositifolia ) -- Other states where invasive: DC, KY, MD, MO, SC, VA, WV. 5. the tuber must carefully be removed or resprouting may occur. established. Bulbils might be carried by rodents (who eat and gather them) from Monitoring the status of The tuber contains about 20% starch, 75% water, 0.1% regeneration of native species, invertebrates, and mammals, may be important indicators reproduction of D. polystachya? small potato-like axillary bulbils. in Tennessee, reports that using triclopyr (Garlon 4® applied at 2% with an adjuvant, 1991 (1998 update). Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but … The use of manual and mechanical methods Information on changes in the climbing vine native to China that is currently widespread throughout East Asia Gleason, H.A. Lower leaves are typically alternate, but upper leaves, especially those bearing the distinctive aerial tubers, are generally opposite. solution. Beyerl, T. 2001. 2. water or by animals. for new bulbil recruitment and root sprouts) for several years should be accompanied by Cinnamon vine or air potato: A problem by any name. Source: Information on this plant page is derived primarily from James H. Miller's Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests , USDA Forest Service. 6. high degree of asexual reproductive vigor, and is difficult to manage once firmly • Native forest vine or tangles shrub • Green stems with stiff prickles • Climbs with tendrils • … Kartesz, J.T. late in summer on foliage. exploit any increase in soil nutrient levels, making it an excellent competitor for soil applying a herbicide that is not active or persistent in the soil (such as glyphosate) to In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. What are the mechanisms of D. polystachya invasion and spread in a variety of It and other introduced yam species now grow wild there.

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