> Civil War. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. Not a single shot was fired in that exchange, but the stage was set for the bloodiest war in American history. Immediate causes of the civil war. Though outgeneraled, outmaneuvered and outfought, Washington extracted most of his army, thus saving it and the Patriot cause.... HistoryNet, Homepage Featured Top Stories, Homepage Hero. The presidential election of 1860 would be the deciding point for the Union. The burning issue that led to the disruption of the union was the debate over the future of slavery. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing tensions and disagreements about American life and politics. To the slave holding states, this meant Northerners wanted to choose which parts of the Constitution they would enforce, while expecting the South to honor the entire document. In the industrial North, there was a low, festering resentment that eight of the first 11 U.S. presidents were Southerners—and most of them Virginians at that. It took nearly 250 eventful years longer for it to boil into a war, but that Dutchman’s boatload was at the bottom of it—a fact that needs to be fixed in the reader’s mind from the start. But when Lincoln ordered all states to contribute men for an army to suppress the rebellion South Carolina started by firing on Fort Sumter, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina also joined the Confederacy rather than make war on their fellow Southerners. Equally outraged Southerners sent their own settlers, and a brutish group known as Border Ruffians from slaveholding Missouri went into Kansas to make trouble for the abolitionists. During the Mexican War, the debate began about what would happen with the new territories the U.S. expected to gain upon victory. On April 12, the Confederates opened fire with cannons. This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. 1. That is until 1820, when Missouri applied for statehood and anti-slavery forces insisted it must be free. Slaves could be rented or traded or sold to pay debts. Harriet Tubman Southerners on the other hand, or so the theory went, were the hereditary offspring of Cromwell’s enemies, the “gay cavaliers” of King Charles II and his glorious Restoration, who had imbued the South with their easygoing, chivalrous and honest ways. With all this back and forth carrying on for at least the decade preceding war, by the time hostilities broke out, few either in the North or the South had much use for the other, and minds were set. The famous Dred Scott Decision in 1857 denied his request stating that no person with African blood could become a U.S. citizen. An attempt was made to ensure that equal numbers of free states and pro-slavery states were admitted to the Union, but over time this proved difficult. The states of the North, meanwhile, one by one had gradually abolished slavery. By the 1840s, the abolitionists had decided that slavery was not simply a social evil, but a “moral wrong,” and began to agitate on that basis. Ask your question. No matter how distasteful he found the practice of slavery, the overarching philosophy that drove Lincoln was a hard pragmatism that did not include the forcible abolition of slavery by the federal government—for the simple reason that he could not envision any political way of accomplishing it. Virginia’s Thomas Jefferson probably summed up the attitude of the day when he defined the South’s “peculiar institution” as a necessary evil, which he and many others believed, or at least hoped, would wither away of its own accord since it was basically wasteful and unproductive. Liberia Civil War. Nevertheless there were millions of slaves living in the South, and their population continued growing. But in the end they, like practically everyone else, were swept along on the tide of anti-Washington, anti-abolition, anti-Northern and anti-Lincoln rhetoric. In 1857 the U.S. Supreme Court delivered its infamous Dred Scott decision, which elated Southerners and enraged Northerners. For a time it appeared the practice was on its way to extinction. Then there was the matter of the Tariff of Abominations, which became abominable for all concerned. Additionally, some abolitionists took a less peaceful route to fighting against slavery. Many Northern leaders like Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Alahji Ahmadu Bello and so on were killed in … The sides of this debate were largely drawn between northern and southern states, thus widened the growing divide within the nation. Political causes of the American Civil War that come easily to mind are that the South wanted to protect their rights to own slaves and to make a state more sovereign than the Federation. This provoked, among other things, religious schisms, which in the mid-1840s caused the American Methodist and Baptist churches to split into Northern and Southern denominations. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. By then, every respectable-sized city, North and South, had a half-dozen newspapers and even small towns had at least one or more; and the revolutionary new telegraph brought the latest news overnight or sooner. The first organized government in the U.S. after the Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. In the Civil War era, this struggle focused heavily on the institution of slavery and whether the federal government had the right to regulate or even abolish slavery within an individual state. Things had come a long way during the nearly 250 years since the Dutchman delivered his cargo of African slaves to the wharf at Jamestown, but in 1860 almost everyone agreed that a war wouldn’t last long. Even though it failed to pass into law, the very act of presenting the measure became a cause célèbre among Southerners who viewed it as further evidence that Northerners were not only out to destroy their “peculiar institution,” but their political power as well. The most famous activist of the underground railroad was Harriet Tubman, a nurse and spy in the Civil War and known as the Moses of her people. African American History Timeline: 1700 - 1799, The Hoax That a Tariff Provoked the Civil War, Opposition to Reconstruction: The Rise of the KKK and Other Hate Groups, The National Association of Colored Women, Black Representation in Government: Jesse Jackson, Shirley Chisolm, and more, Police Racism, Violence, and Black Lives Matter, Statistical View of the United States, Compendium of the Seventh Census, Statistical view of the United States in 1850, Population of the United States 1860: Compiled from the Original Returns of the 8th Census. The court ruled, in essence, that a slave was not a citizen, or even a person, and that slaves were “so far inferior that they [have] no rights which the white man [is] bound to respect.” Southerners were relieved that they could now move their slaves in and out of free territories and states without losing them, while in the North the ruling merely drove more people into the anti-slavery camp. Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states (followed by four more after the onset of the war) declared their secession from the United States (), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go. Even though things were already near a boiling point after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession" on December 24, 1860. While we will examine some various reasons for the buildup of tension between the Southern states and the . States’ Rights refers To the struggle between the federal government and individual states over political power. This set off the Nullification Crisis, which held in theory (or wishful thinking) that a state could nullify or ignore any federal law it held was not in its best interests. All the resenting and seething naturally continued to spill over into politics. Ownership of more than a handful of slaves bestowed respect and contributed to social position, and slaves, as the property of individuals and businesses, represented the largest portion of the region’s personal and corporate wealth, as cotton and land prices declined and the price of slaves soared. These influential journals, from Richmond to Charleston and myriad points in between, painted a sensational picture of Lincoln in words and cartoons as an arch-abolitionist—a kind of antichrist who would turn the slaves loose to rape, murder and pillage. That prompted an obscure congressman from Pennsylvania to submit an amendment to a Mexican War funding bill in 1846 that would have prevented slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico—which became known, after its author, as the Wilmot Proviso. When the Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, Southern fears that the Republicans would abolish slavery reached a new peak. Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. To the surprise of other Southern states—and even to many South Carolinians—the convention voted to dissolve the state’s contract with the United States and strike off on its own. The Abolitionist Movement Any man who takes it upon himself to explain the causes of the Civil War deserves whatever grief comes his way, regardless of his good intentions. One economic cause is that the South was being dominated economically by the North. At the same time, the conflicts surrounding Kansas and the Compromise of 1850 transformed the Whig party into the Republican party (established in 1854). During the decade of the 1850s, crisis seemed to pile upon crisis as levels of anger turned to rage, and rage turned to violence. The southern states, starting with South Carolina, began to succeed from the Union. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. It didn’t matter to the South. One of these immediate causes was the monarch, Charles I, who was very unpopular in every sense of the word, for a…   var NetMarketingAdvisers_goal = { id: "1275" }; D)Worcester v. Georgia struck down Cherokee removal. The battle at fort sumer's is consider by many to be the start of the Civil War. The immediate provocation for secession of the states, which led to the war, was the election of. Type or write down the relevant dates and a brief description of each of the This was shot down amid much debate. // < ! However, as years went by, the North, particularly New England, had developed cotton mills of its own—as well as leather and harness manufactories, iron and steel mills, arms and munitions factories, potteries, furniture makers, silversmiths and so forth. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act, sponsored by frequent presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas, overturned the Missouri Compromise and permitted settlers in the Kansas Territory to choose for themselves whether they wanted a free or slave state. “States’ rights” also became a Southern watchword for Northern (or “Yankee”) intrusion on the Southern lifestyle. Having acknowledged that, let me also say I have long believed there is no more concise or stirring accounting for the war than the sentiments propounded by Irish poet William Butler Yeats in The Second Coming, some lines of which are included in this essay. Later, South Carolina legislators acted on this assertion and defied the federal government to overrule them, lest the state secede. The incident also set the stage for the states’ rights dispute, pitting state laws against the notion of federal sovereignty—an argument which became ongoing into the next century, and the next. // ]]> Civil War Times Editor Dana Shoaf shares the story of how Battery H of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery found itself in the middle of the Battle of Gettysburg. The 1850s drew to a close in near social convulsion and the established political parties began to break apart—always a dangerous sign. What are the short term and long term causes of the Civil War? The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was another issue that further increased tensions. Others voted down secession—temporarily. But there is blame enough for all to go around. The politics over slavery began to heat up in the early to … When Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. The Dred Scott Case brought the issues of enslaved peoples' rights, freedom, and citizenship to the Supreme Court. In the North, the influx of immigrants—many from countries that had long since abolished slavery—contributed to a society in which people of different cultures and classes lived and worked together. Tresemmé Flawless Curls Shampoo, Cinnamon Weight Loss Results, Cover Letter For Radiographer Job, What To Do With Coriander Seeds, Peter Cornelius Conservatory, Vi Text Editor, Just Wholefoods Vanilla Custard Powder, " />

During the Mexican War the United States acquired enormous territories in the West, and what by then abolitionists called the “slave power” was pressing to colonize these lands. They claimed obedience to “higher law” over obedience to the Constitution’s guarantee that a fugitive from one state would be considered a fugitive in all states. His name was John Brown. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free states or pro-slavery states. Murderous slave revolts had occurred in Haiti, Jamaica and Louisiana and more recently resulted in the killing of nearly 60 whites during the Nat Turner slave uprising in Virginia in 1831. On the night of October 16, 1859, Brown and a band of followers seized the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in what is believed to have been an attempt to arm a slave insurrection. Other mountainous regions of the South, such as East Tennessee, also favored such a course but were too far from the support of Federal forces to attempt it. In contrast, industry ruled the economy of the North and less emphasis was on agriculture, though even that was more diverse. There is the possibility that war might have been avoided, and a solution worked out, had there not been so much mistrust on the part of the South. Secessionism While there were many political and cultural differences between the North and the South that contributed to the American Civil War, the main cause of the war was slavery. For over 50 years, the two territories disputed on the issue of slavery and whether It was enough for Lincoln to win the popular vote, as well as 180 electoral votes. Douglas won only Missouri and a portion of New Jersey. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin," a popular novel that opened many eyes to the reality of enslavement. Whenever you have two people—or peoples—joined in politics but doing diametrically opposing things, it is almost inevitable that at some point tensions and jealousies will break out. By denying slaveholders the right to extend their boundaries, Lincoln would in effect also be weakening their power in Washington, and over time this would almost inevitably have resulted in the abolition of slavery, as sooner or later the land would have worn out. But any careful reading of newspapers, magazines or correspondence of the era indicates that here is where the feud began to fester into hatred. Of course there were other things, too. The conflict drew involvement from a number of international actors and helped precipitate the rise of ISIL (also called ISIS or Islamic State) in eastern Syria. Lincoln wouldn't let them leave the United States, but in response they attacked Fort Sumter. Syrian Civil War, armed conflict that began in 2011 with an uprising against the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Many Northern industries were purchasing the South's raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’0′ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’25’ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’50’ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’75’ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’100′ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’125′ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], VIDEO: Battery H Of The 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery At Gettysburg, Dan Bullock: The youngest American killed in the Vietnam War. The immediate cause was Constitutional principle: the U.S. government refused to recognize the southern states’ right to secede from the Union, and the C.S. John Brown and his family fought on the anti-slavery side of "Bleeding Kansas." Exacerbating tensions, the old Whig political party was dying. This in turn, 40 years later, prompted South Carolina’s prominent senator John C. Calhoun to declare that slavery—far from being merely a “necessary evil”—was actually a “positive good,” because, among other things, in the years since the gin’s invention, the South had become fabulously rich, with cotton constituting some 80 percent of all U.S. exports. Immediate Cause of the Civil War: Lincoln’s Election & Secession of the South Direction: Read the enclosed Newsletter “ Lincoln’s Election and the Secession of the South” on pages 2-3. It is probably safe to say that the original impetus of the Civil War was set in motion when a Dutch trader offloaded a cargo of African slaves at Jamestown, Va., in 1619. The long-term cause was a feeling by most Southerners that the interests of the two sections of the country had drifted apart, and were no longer mutual or worthwhile. At the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the enslavement of people not only remained legal in all 13 British American colonies, but it also continued to play a significant role in their economies and societies. History >> Civil War. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. Not a single shot was fired in that exchange, but the stage was set for the bloodiest war in American history. Immediate causes of the civil war. Though outgeneraled, outmaneuvered and outfought, Washington extracted most of his army, thus saving it and the Patriot cause.... HistoryNet, Homepage Featured Top Stories, Homepage Hero. The presidential election of 1860 would be the deciding point for the Union. The burning issue that led to the disruption of the union was the debate over the future of slavery. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing tensions and disagreements about American life and politics. To the slave holding states, this meant Northerners wanted to choose which parts of the Constitution they would enforce, while expecting the South to honor the entire document. In the industrial North, there was a low, festering resentment that eight of the first 11 U.S. presidents were Southerners—and most of them Virginians at that. It took nearly 250 eventful years longer for it to boil into a war, but that Dutchman’s boatload was at the bottom of it—a fact that needs to be fixed in the reader’s mind from the start. But when Lincoln ordered all states to contribute men for an army to suppress the rebellion South Carolina started by firing on Fort Sumter, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina also joined the Confederacy rather than make war on their fellow Southerners. Equally outraged Southerners sent their own settlers, and a brutish group known as Border Ruffians from slaveholding Missouri went into Kansas to make trouble for the abolitionists. During the Mexican War, the debate began about what would happen with the new territories the U.S. expected to gain upon victory. On April 12, the Confederates opened fire with cannons. This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. 1. That is until 1820, when Missouri applied for statehood and anti-slavery forces insisted it must be free. Slaves could be rented or traded or sold to pay debts. Harriet Tubman Southerners on the other hand, or so the theory went, were the hereditary offspring of Cromwell’s enemies, the “gay cavaliers” of King Charles II and his glorious Restoration, who had imbued the South with their easygoing, chivalrous and honest ways. With all this back and forth carrying on for at least the decade preceding war, by the time hostilities broke out, few either in the North or the South had much use for the other, and minds were set. The famous Dred Scott Decision in 1857 denied his request stating that no person with African blood could become a U.S. citizen. An attempt was made to ensure that equal numbers of free states and pro-slavery states were admitted to the Union, but over time this proved difficult. The states of the North, meanwhile, one by one had gradually abolished slavery. By the 1840s, the abolitionists had decided that slavery was not simply a social evil, but a “moral wrong,” and began to agitate on that basis. Ask your question. No matter how distasteful he found the practice of slavery, the overarching philosophy that drove Lincoln was a hard pragmatism that did not include the forcible abolition of slavery by the federal government—for the simple reason that he could not envision any political way of accomplishing it. Virginia’s Thomas Jefferson probably summed up the attitude of the day when he defined the South’s “peculiar institution” as a necessary evil, which he and many others believed, or at least hoped, would wither away of its own accord since it was basically wasteful and unproductive. Liberia Civil War. Nevertheless there were millions of slaves living in the South, and their population continued growing. But in the end they, like practically everyone else, were swept along on the tide of anti-Washington, anti-abolition, anti-Northern and anti-Lincoln rhetoric. In 1857 the U.S. Supreme Court delivered its infamous Dred Scott decision, which elated Southerners and enraged Northerners. For a time it appeared the practice was on its way to extinction. Then there was the matter of the Tariff of Abominations, which became abominable for all concerned. Additionally, some abolitionists took a less peaceful route to fighting against slavery. Many Northern leaders like Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Alahji Ahmadu Bello and so on were killed in … The sides of this debate were largely drawn between northern and southern states, thus widened the growing divide within the nation. Political causes of the American Civil War that come easily to mind are that the South wanted to protect their rights to own slaves and to make a state more sovereign than the Federation. This provoked, among other things, religious schisms, which in the mid-1840s caused the American Methodist and Baptist churches to split into Northern and Southern denominations. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. By then, every respectable-sized city, North and South, had a half-dozen newspapers and even small towns had at least one or more; and the revolutionary new telegraph brought the latest news overnight or sooner. The first organized government in the U.S. after the Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. In the Civil War era, this struggle focused heavily on the institution of slavery and whether the federal government had the right to regulate or even abolish slavery within an individual state. Things had come a long way during the nearly 250 years since the Dutchman delivered his cargo of African slaves to the wharf at Jamestown, but in 1860 almost everyone agreed that a war wouldn’t last long. Even though it failed to pass into law, the very act of presenting the measure became a cause célèbre among Southerners who viewed it as further evidence that Northerners were not only out to destroy their “peculiar institution,” but their political power as well. The most famous activist of the underground railroad was Harriet Tubman, a nurse and spy in the Civil War and known as the Moses of her people. African American History Timeline: 1700 - 1799, The Hoax That a Tariff Provoked the Civil War, Opposition to Reconstruction: The Rise of the KKK and Other Hate Groups, The National Association of Colored Women, Black Representation in Government: Jesse Jackson, Shirley Chisolm, and more, Police Racism, Violence, and Black Lives Matter, Statistical View of the United States, Compendium of the Seventh Census, Statistical view of the United States in 1850, Population of the United States 1860: Compiled from the Original Returns of the 8th Census. The court ruled, in essence, that a slave was not a citizen, or even a person, and that slaves were “so far inferior that they [have] no rights which the white man [is] bound to respect.” Southerners were relieved that they could now move their slaves in and out of free territories and states without losing them, while in the North the ruling merely drove more people into the anti-slavery camp. Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states (followed by four more after the onset of the war) declared their secession from the United States (), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go. Even though things were already near a boiling point after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession" on December 24, 1860. While we will examine some various reasons for the buildup of tension between the Southern states and the . States’ Rights refers To the struggle between the federal government and individual states over political power. This set off the Nullification Crisis, which held in theory (or wishful thinking) that a state could nullify or ignore any federal law it held was not in its best interests. All the resenting and seething naturally continued to spill over into politics. Ownership of more than a handful of slaves bestowed respect and contributed to social position, and slaves, as the property of individuals and businesses, represented the largest portion of the region’s personal and corporate wealth, as cotton and land prices declined and the price of slaves soared. These influential journals, from Richmond to Charleston and myriad points in between, painted a sensational picture of Lincoln in words and cartoons as an arch-abolitionist—a kind of antichrist who would turn the slaves loose to rape, murder and pillage. That prompted an obscure congressman from Pennsylvania to submit an amendment to a Mexican War funding bill in 1846 that would have prevented slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico—which became known, after its author, as the Wilmot Proviso. When the Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, Southern fears that the Republicans would abolish slavery reached a new peak. Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. To the surprise of other Southern states—and even to many South Carolinians—the convention voted to dissolve the state’s contract with the United States and strike off on its own. The Abolitionist Movement Any man who takes it upon himself to explain the causes of the Civil War deserves whatever grief comes his way, regardless of his good intentions. One economic cause is that the South was being dominated economically by the North. At the same time, the conflicts surrounding Kansas and the Compromise of 1850 transformed the Whig party into the Republican party (established in 1854). During the decade of the 1850s, crisis seemed to pile upon crisis as levels of anger turned to rage, and rage turned to violence. The southern states, starting with South Carolina, began to succeed from the Union. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. It didn’t matter to the South. One of these immediate causes was the monarch, Charles I, who was very unpopular in every sense of the word, for a…   var NetMarketingAdvisers_goal = { id: "1275" }; D)Worcester v. Georgia struck down Cherokee removal. The battle at fort sumer's is consider by many to be the start of the Civil War. The immediate provocation for secession of the states, which led to the war, was the election of. Type or write down the relevant dates and a brief description of each of the This was shot down amid much debate. // < ! However, as years went by, the North, particularly New England, had developed cotton mills of its own—as well as leather and harness manufactories, iron and steel mills, arms and munitions factories, potteries, furniture makers, silversmiths and so forth. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act, sponsored by frequent presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas, overturned the Missouri Compromise and permitted settlers in the Kansas Territory to choose for themselves whether they wanted a free or slave state. “States’ rights” also became a Southern watchword for Northern (or “Yankee”) intrusion on the Southern lifestyle. Having acknowledged that, let me also say I have long believed there is no more concise or stirring accounting for the war than the sentiments propounded by Irish poet William Butler Yeats in The Second Coming, some lines of which are included in this essay. Later, South Carolina legislators acted on this assertion and defied the federal government to overrule them, lest the state secede. The incident also set the stage for the states’ rights dispute, pitting state laws against the notion of federal sovereignty—an argument which became ongoing into the next century, and the next. // ]]> Civil War Times Editor Dana Shoaf shares the story of how Battery H of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery found itself in the middle of the Battle of Gettysburg. The 1850s drew to a close in near social convulsion and the established political parties began to break apart—always a dangerous sign. What are the short term and long term causes of the Civil War? The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was another issue that further increased tensions. Others voted down secession—temporarily. But there is blame enough for all to go around. The politics over slavery began to heat up in the early to … When Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. The Dred Scott Case brought the issues of enslaved peoples' rights, freedom, and citizenship to the Supreme Court. In the North, the influx of immigrants—many from countries that had long since abolished slavery—contributed to a society in which people of different cultures and classes lived and worked together.

Tresemmé Flawless Curls Shampoo, Cinnamon Weight Loss Results, Cover Letter For Radiographer Job, What To Do With Coriander Seeds, Peter Cornelius Conservatory, Vi Text Editor, Just Wholefoods Vanilla Custard Powder,

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